Blitz of London in World War II, the authorities prepared bomb shelters in the
subway. People were far safer there than on the surface of an area attacked
repeatedly, especially at night. Henry Moore did a series of evocative drawings
of the hushed and constrained life.
As the planning
of the shelters proceeded, evidently it turned out that there was no existing
map of the subway overall. Instead, teams of old-timers who had worked in the
underground for years were mobilized to produce together a comprehensive picture
of what happened beneath the concrete. A system had arisen over time, and finally
a picture of the whole pattern was assembled. And yet of course the underground
had been working fine for years.
a metaphor for the recent unveiling of the human genome by the two groups separately
pursuing the same Secular Grail. Like the moron in Moliere’s play who discovered
that he had been speaking prose all his life, we have been speaking genomics
almost forever. The dust is beginning to settle, and we can reflect some on
what the accomplishment means.
One of the
most amusing outcomes was the discovery that we boast some 32,000 genes rather
than the 100,000 conjectured before the facts were in. This estimate was a back-of-the-envelope
number produced by Nobelist Walter Gilbert in the mid-1980s–and he stands
by his estimate. Commentators from editorial writers at the Guardian
of England to the relentlessly sanctimonious Stephen Jay Gould leaped in to
say something like, "Aha, you see, genes are not that important. The environment
is what matters. So all you reductionists, go back to your ill-lit cave. This
proves that genes have been overestimated factors in influencing human behavior."
(Gould is a brilliant scientist with an enormous inability to see the connection
between the work he does so well and human behavior. In this respect, he resembles
Natalie Angier, who writes excellently about the biology of social life, except
for issues involving sex, when she becomes politically correct in a dingily
But the interpretation
of the meaning of the number of genes is almost majestically stupid. First,
all that has happened is that a mistaken and essentially boastful estimate has
been corrected by real information. And more important, logically speaking the
fewer genes there are, the more important each is. If you have a car with three
gears, each is more active and hence influential than if you have 30 gears.
32,000 of anything is a substantial number. There are only 26 letters in the
English language yet the variations in using them are phenomenally numerous.
What if we had 32,000 letters in the alphabet? The fact is, the complexity inherent
in this number of information carriers about the process of living boggles the
There is a
variety of different levels of meaning in the publication of the picture of
our underlying system. Inevitably, it is a vindication of the Darwinian approach
to evolution and patterns of life.
As I have written
here before, there should be rapidly enhanced understanding that the distinction
in the modern university between social and nature science is unnatural and
increasingly pathological. Its continuation will doom social scientists to flat-earther
irrelevance. The deprivation among natural scientists of social science insights
into organizational complexity may reinforce miscalculation of the effect of
industrial and technical processes on human beings and our societies. It has
taken years for even physicians who are confronted with real people to recognize
they have to deal with the whole patient, not just the specialized piece of
meat on which they focus.
The fact that
we have shared millions-years-old genes with everything from watercress to worms
suggests the profound interconnectivity of forms of life. It also provides a
basis for anticipating future environmental movements of drastically enhanced
sophistication and sensitivity. Worms R Us, and as the world becomes more crowded
with people, substances, objects and processes, the sharing of genes may begin
to generate a sharing of common interest.
the information that at the DNA level all humans are 99.9 percent identical
will have to affect racial politicians of all colors, bigotry levels and ideology.
This should speed up the removal of the race category from inventories like
the census, and curtail its role in supporting the various demographically remedial
schemes of concernocrats who try to stage-manage the world according to fake
norms of diversity based on fake notions of racial continuity. The diversity
is already in the system. We are genetically diverse enough. Seeking social
equity on the basis of a spurious category will continue to create problems.
Spurious theories generate frail realities and run a high risk of producing
barriers to genuine change reflecting genuine diversity.
publication will surely generate some enhanced nervousness in the seminaries
and on the pulpit–more than there already is. It is idle to propose there
is no conflict with religious belief, which so often depends on notions of special
creation of human beings. The scientific knowledge is real and coercive that
not only did we not begin our journey in Eden but have in fact been sashaying
through the planet, leaving genetic trails tens of millions of years old and
still not cold. After the publication of the genome picture, Cardinal Ruini,
the cardinal vicar for the Rome diocese, said, "The Church has no reason
to fear discoveries about the human genome," because "Man is a rational
animal," and hence unique among the creatures of the world. But we know
that other animals possess consciousness and display the ability to reflect
on their problems and opportunities.
the genome work has underscored how extensively brain cells call on genes to
construct, wire, power and maintain the nervous system in which the brain is
the major player. It has been estimated that anywhere from 40 percent to "most"
of the genome plays a role in what the brain does. This may have important impacts
on, for example, learning how mental dysfunction emerges, and which brain factors
such as dopamine transporters–which vary between people–may be responsible
for more or less susceptibility to addiction. But since similar patterns occur
among the other primates, notions of special rational privilege become ever
more tricky to sustain. And it’s even more dangerous to insist upon A Special
Relationship to higher powers when an effort is under way to find relief from
clear medical problems.